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Грамматика английского языка. Каушанская В.Л., Ковнер Р.Л. и др.

5-е изд., испр. и доп. - М.: 2008 - 384 с.

Один из лучших отечественных учебников по грамматике английского языка, написанных за последние 50 лет. Книга состоит из двух частей — «Морфология» и «Синтаксис», в ней глубоко и детально описана грамматическая система английского языка Примеры, иллюстрирующие правила, взяты из классических произведений английских и американских авторов XIX-XX вв., а также из современных словарей. Пятое издание учебника составлено с учетом изменений, произошедших в грамматической системе английского языка за последние десятилетия. Для студентов и преподавателей языковых вузов, а также для всех тех, кто желает в совершенстве освоить грамматику английского языка
 

 

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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Table of Contents
Foreword 14
Introduction. Grammatical structure of the English language 15
Part 1
ACCIDENCE
General classification of the parts of speech 18
Chapter I. The Noun
§1. Definition 19
§ 2. Morphological characteristics 19
§ 3. Syntactical characteristics 19
§ 4. Morphological composition 20
§5. Classification 21
§ 6. The category of number 24
§7. The category of case 28
Chapter II. The Article
§1. General notion 32
Use of articles with common nouns 33
§ 2-4. Class nouns 33
§ 5-7. Nouns of material 38
§ 8-11. Abstract nouns 39
Use of articles with proper nouns 40
§ 12. Names of people 40
§ 13. Geographical names 42
§ 14. Names of hotels, ships, newspapers and magazines 43
§ 15. Names of cardinal points 43
§ 16. Names of months and days 43
§ 17. Nouns modified by proper nouns 44
Use of articles with nouns in some set expressions 44
§ 18. The use of the indefinite article with nouns in set expressions 44
§ 19. The use of the definite article with nouns in set expressions 45
§ 20. Nouns in set expressions used without an article 46
Use of articles in some syntactic relations 48
§ 21. The use of articles with predicative nouns 48
§ 22. The use of articles with nouns in apposition 49
§ 23. The use of articles with nouns used in address 50
§ 24. Place of the article 50
§ 25. Ways of expressing the meaning of the English articles in Russian 51
Special difficulties in the use of articles 52
§ 26. The use of articles with the nouns day, night, morning, evening 52
§ 27. The use of articles with names of seasons 52
§ 28. The use of articles with the nouns school, college, university, bed, prison Jail, church 53
§ 29. The use of articles with the noun town 54
§ 30. The use of articles with the names of meals 54
§ 31. The use of articles with names of languages 55
Use of articles with nouns modified by certain adjectives, pronouns and numerals 55
§ 32. Most 55
§ 33. Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little 56
§ 34. Two, the two; three, the three, etc 57
§ 35. The second, a second 57
§ 36. Another, the other 57
§ 37. Last, the last 58
§ 38. Next, the next 58
§ 39. A number, the number 58
Omission of the article 58
Chapter III. The Adjective
§ 1. Definition 60
§ 2. Morphological characteristics 60
§ 3. Spelling rules 61
§ 4. Syntactical characteristics 61
§ 5. Morphological composition 61
§ 6. Classification of adjectives 62
§ 7. Grammatical characteristics of qualitative adjectives 63
§ 8. Grammatical characteristics of relative adjectives 63
§ 9. Substantivized adjectives 64
Chapter IV. The Pronoun
§1. Definition 65
§ 2. Classification of pronouns 65
§ 3. Personal pronouns 66
§ 4. Possessive pronouns 67
§ 5. Reflexive pronouns 68
§6. Reciprocal pronouns 70
§ 7. Demonstrative pronouns 71
§8. Interrogative pronouns 72
§ 9. Relative pronouns 74
§ 10. Conjunctive pronouns 75
§11. Defining pronouns 76
§ 12. Indefinite pronouns 79
§ 13. Negative pronouns 83
Chapter V. The Numeral
§1. Definition 86
§ 2. Cardinal numerals 86
§ 3. The functions of cardinal numerals in a sentence 86
§ 4. Ordinal numerals 87
§ 5. The functions of ordinal numerals in a sentence 87
Chapter VI. The Words of the Category of State
§1. Definition 89
§ 2—4. Morphological composition and use 89
Chapter VII. The Verb
§1. Definition 91
§ 2. Morphological structure 91
§3. Basic forms 91
§ 4. Syntactic function 94
§ 5. Transitive and intransitive verbs 95
§ 6. Lexical characteristics 96
§7—10. Grammatical categories 97
Tenses in the Active Voice
The Indefinite form 99
The Present Indefinite 99
§ 1. The formation of the Present Indefinite 99
§ 2. The use of the Present Indefinite 100
The Past Indefinite 102
§ 3. The formation of the Past Indefinite 102
§ 4. The use of the Past Indefinite 102
The Future Indefinite 104
§ 5. The formation of the Future Indefinite 104
§ 6. The use of the Future Indefinite 105
The Future Indefinite in the Past 105
§ 7. The formation of the Future Indefinite in the Past 105
§ 8. The use of the Future Indefinite in the Past 106
The Continuous form 106
The Present Continuous 107
§ 9. The formation of the Present Continuous 107
§ 10. The use of the Present Continuous 107
The Past Continuous 109
§ 11. The formation of the Past Continuous 109
§ 12. The use of the Past Continuous 110
The Future Continuous 111
§ 13. The formation of the Future Continuous 111
§ 14. The use of the Future Continuous 112
The Future Continuous in the Past 113
§ 15. The formation of the Future Continuous in the Past 113
§ 16. The use of the Future Continuous in the Past 114
Verbs not used in the Continuous Form 115
The Perfect form 116
The Present Perfect 116
§ 17. The formation of the Present Perfect 116
§ 18. The use of the Present Perfect 117
§ 19. The Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect 120
The Past Perfect 121
§ 20. The formation of the Past Perfect 121
§ 21. The use of the Past Perfect 122
§ 22. The Past Indefinite and the Past Perfect 124
The Future Perfect 124
§ 23. The formation of the Future Perfect 124
§ 24. The use of the Future Perfect 125
The Future Perfect in the Past 126
§ 25. The formation of the Future Perfect in the Past 126
§ 26. The use of the Future Perfect in the Past 127
The Perfect Continuous form 127
The Present Perfect Continuous 127
§ 27. The formation of the Present Perfect Continuous 127
§ 28. The use of the Present Perfect Continuous 128
§ 29. The Present Perfect Continuous Inclusive and the Present Continuous 130
§ 30. The Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous Exclusive 130
The Past Perfect Continuous 131
§31. The formation of the Past Perfect Continuous 131
§ 32. The use of the Past Perfect Continuous 132
§ 33. The Past Perfect Continuous Inclusive and the Past Continuous 133
The Future Perfect Continuous 133
§ 34. The formation of the Future Perfect Continuous 133
§ 35. The use of the Future Perfect Continuous 134
The Future Perfect Continuous in the Past 135
§ 36. The formation of the Future Perfect Continuous in the Past 135
§ 37. The use of the Future Perfect Continuous in the Past 136
The Passive Voice
§ 1. The formation of the Passive Voice 137
§ 2. The use of the Passive Voice 138
§ 3. The use of tenses in the Passive Voice 139
§ 4. Ways of translating the Passive Voice into Russian 140
§ 5. Uses of the Passive Voice peculiar to the English language 140
§6. The verb to be + Participle II 143
Modal Verbs
§ 1. Definition 145
§ 2. Can 146
§ 3. May 149
§ 4. Must 152
§ 5. Should and ought 154
§ 6. To be + Infinitive 156
§ 7. To have + Infinitive 158
§ 8. Shall 160
§ 9. Will 161
§ 10. Would 163
§ 11 .Dare 164
§ 12. Need 164
Mood 165
The Indicative Mood 166
The Imperative Mood 166
The Subjunctive Mood 167
§1. General notion 167
§2. Synthetic forms 167
§3. Analytical forms 170
§ 4. The forms of the Indicative Mood used to express the same meaning as is expressed by the Subjunctive Mood 170
The use of the Subjunctive Mood 171
§ 5. Simple sentences 171
§ 6. Conditional sentences 172
§ 7. Adverbial clauses of purpose 177
§ 8. Adverbial clauses of concession 178
§ 9. Adverbial clauses of time and place 179
§ 10. Adverbial clauses of comparison 179
§11. Predicative clause 180
§ 12. Subject clauses 181
§ 13. Object clauses 182
§ 14. Attributive appositive clauses 184
§ 15. Attributive clauses modifying the noun time in the principal clause 184
§ 16. Emotional use of the Subjunctive Mood 185
§ 17. Ways of rendering the Subjunctive Mood in Russian 186
Chapter VIII. The Non-finite Forms of the Verb (the Verbals)
§1. Definition 187
§ 2. The characteristic traits of the verbals 187
The Participle
§ 3. General notion 189
§ 4. Double nature of the participle 190
§ 5. Tense distinctions 191
§ 6. Voice distinctions 192
§ 7. Functions of Participle 1 193
§ 8. Functions of Participle II 198
§ 9. Predicative constructions with the participle 200
§ 10. The Objective Participial Construction 200
§ 11. The Subjective Participial Construction 202
§ 12. The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction 203
§ 13. The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction 204
§ 14. Absolute constructions without a participle 204
§ 15. Punctuation 205
The Gerund
§ 16. General notion 206
§ 17. Double nature of the gerund 206
§ 18. Tense distinctions of the gerund 208
§ 19. Voice distinctions of the gerund 210
§ 20. Predicative constructions with the gerund 210
§21. The use of the gerund 212
§ 22. The gerund and the infinitive 215
§ 23. The functions of the gerund 217
§ 24. The gerund and the participle 222
§ 25. The gerund and the verbal noun 223
The Infinitive
§ 26. General notion 224
§ 27. Tense and aspect distinctions of the infinitive 224
§ 28. Voice distinctions of the infinitive 226
§ 29. The use of the infinitive without the particle to 226
§ 30. The functions of the infinitive 229
§ 31. Infinitive constructions……234
§ 32. The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction 234
§ 33. The Subjective Infinitive Construction 239
§ 34. The for-to-Infinitive Construction 242
§ 35. The infinitive with the expressions to be sorry, to be glad 244
Chapter IX. The Adverb
§1. Definition 245
§ 2. Morphological structure 245
§ 3. Degrees of comparison 245
§ 4. Classification 246
Chapter X. The Modal Words
§1. Definition 247
§2. Classification 247
§3. Use 247
§ 4. Modal words and adverbs 247
Chapter XI. The Interjection
§1. Definition 249
§2. Classification 249
§ 3. Morphological composotion 249
Chapter XII. The Preposition
§1. Definition 251
§ 2. Morphological structure 251
§ 3. Classification 251
§ 4. Prepositions, adverbs and conjunctions 252
§ 5. Prepositions and postpositions 253
Chapter XIII. The Conjunction
§1. Definition 254
§ 2. Morphological structure 254
§3. Classification 255
§ 4. Coordinating conjunctions 255
§ 5. Subordinating conjunctions 258
Chapter XIV. The Particle
§1. Definition 261
§2. Classification 261
Part II SYNTAX
Chapter XV. The Simple Sentence
§1. Definition 264
§2. Classification 264
§3-4. Structure 267
Parts of the Sentence
The principal parts of the sentence 269
The Subject 269
§5. Definition 269
§ 6. Ways of expressing the subject 269
§ 7. It as the subject of the sentence 272
The predicate 274
§8. Definition 274
§ 9. The simple predicate 275
§ 10. The predicate expressed by a phraseological unit 275
§ 11. The compound predicate 277
§ 12. The compound nominal predicate 277
§ 13. The predicative 280
§ 14. The Objective Predicative 282
§ 15. The compound verbal predicate 283
§ 16. The compound verbal modal predicate 283
§ 17. The compound verbal aspect predicate 284
§ 18. Mixed types of predicate 285
Agreement of the predicate with the subject 286
§ 19. General notion 286
§ 20. Rules of agreement 287
§21. Agreemen of the predicate with the subject expressed by a syntactic word-group 291
The secondary parts of the sentence 294
The object 294
§22. Definition 294
§ 23. Ways of expressing the object 294
§24. Kinds of objects 296
§25. The direct object 296
§ 26. The indirect object 296
§ 27. The complex object 299
§ 28. The cognate object 300
The attribute 301
§29. Definition 301
§ 30. Ways of expressing the attribute 301
§ 31. The apposition 305
§ 32. The close apposition 305
§ 33. The loose or detached apposition 306
The adverbial modifier 306
§ 34. Definition and classification 306
§ 35. Ways of expressing the adverbial modifier 308
Detached (loose) parts of the sentence 310
§36. Definition 310
§ 37. The detached adverbial modifier 311
§ 38. The detached attribute 312
§ 39. The detached object 312
The independent elements of the sentence 312
§40. Definition 312
§41. Parenthesis 313
Sentences with homogeneous parts 314
Chapter XVI. Word Order
§ 1. General remarks 316
§2-4. Inverted order of words 317
§ 5. Position of the object 322
§ 6. Position of the attribute 323
§ 7. Position of adverbial modifiers 327
Chapter XVII. The Compound Sentence and the Complex Sentence
The compound sentence 332
§ 1. General notion 332
§ 2. Types of coordination 332
The complex sentence 334
§ 3. General notion 334
§ 4. Subject clauses 336
§5. Predicative clauses 337
§ 6. Object clauses 338
§ 7. Attributive clauses 340
§ 8. Attributive relative clauses 340
§ 9. Attributive appositive clauses 342
§ 10. The use of relative pronouns in attributive relative clauses 342
§ 11. Adverbial clauses 344
§ 12. Adverbial clauses of time 345
§ 13. Adverbial clauses of place 346
§ 14. Adverbial clauses of cause 347
§ 15. Adverbial clauses of purpose 347
§ 16. Adverbial clauses of condition 348
§ 17. Adverbial clauses of concession 348
§ 18. Adverbial clauses of result 349
§ 19. Adverbial clauses of manner 349
§ 20. Adverbial clauses of comparison 350
§ 21. Polysemantic conjunctions 350
The compound-complex sentence 351
Parenthetical clauses 351
Chapter XVIII. The Sequence of Tenses
§1. Definition 352
§2-5. General rules 353
§ 6. Tenses in English and in Russian 354
§ 7. Tenses in object clauses 355
§ 8. Tenses in conventional direct speech 355
§ 9. Tenses in attributive relative clauses and adverbial clauses of cause, result, comparison, and concession 355
§ 10. Tenses in subject clauses and predicative clauses 356
Chapter XIX. Indirect Speech
§ 1-2. General remarks 357
§3. Indirect statements 363
§ 4. Indirect questions 365
§ 5. Indirect orders and requests 366
§ 6. Indirect offers, suggestions, and advice 368
§ 7. Indirect exclamations 369
§ 8. Greetings and leave-taking 369
Chapter XX. Punctuation
§ 1. General remarks 371
The simple sentence 371
§2. Homogeneous members 371
§ 3. Detached members 372
§ 4. Parenthetical words, groups of words, and clauses 373
§ 5. Inteijections 374
§ 6. Nouns in address 374
The compound sentence 374
§ 7. Coordinate clauscs joined asyndetically 374
§ 8. Coordinate clauses joined by copulative conjunctions 375
§ 9. Coordinate clauses joined by disjunctive conjunctions 375
§ 10. Coordinate clauses joined by adversative conjunctions 376
§11. Clauses joined by causative-consecutive conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs 376
§ 12. Sentence containing direct speech 377
The complex sentence 378
§ 13. Subject clauses 378
§ 14. Predicative clauses . 378
§ 15. Object clauses 378
§ 16. Attributive clauses 379
§ 17. Adverbial clauses 379
§ 18. Complex sentences consisting of two or more homogeneous clauses 380
§ 19. Declarative non-exclamatory sentences 380
§ 20. Sentences expressing a question 380
§21. Exclamatory sentences 381
§ 22. Unfinished sentences 381
 

 


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